Primary Care Measures: Resources for Research and Evaluation
Measuring Care Coordination, Clinical-Community Relationships, Team-Based Care, and Integrated Behavioral Health Care
Are you looking for instruments and measures to study and evaluate interventions to improve primary care? Use these searchable databases to explore frameworks for measurement, and to identify and compare measures within 4 areas that are critical to primary care improvement.
Care Coordination Quality Measure for Primary Care (CCQM-PC)
The Care Coordination Quality Measure for Primary Care (CCQM-PC) is a survey of adult patients’ experiences with care coordination in primary care settings. The CCQM-PC builds on previous AHRQ work to develop a conceptual framework for care coordination and fills a gap in the care coordination measurement field. It was developed, cognitively tested, and piloted with patients from a diverse set of 13 primary care practices to comprehensively assess patient perceptions of the quality of their care coordination experiences. The CCQM-PC is designed to be used in primary care research and evaluation, with potential applications to primary care quality improvement. Guidance regarding the fielding of the survey is provided in addition to the full survey, which is in the public domain and may be used without additional permission.
Care coordination is considered a core function in the provision of patient-centered, high-value, high-quality primary care. However, challenges remain in measuring the structural and process aspects of care coordination, as well as its contributions to desired outcomes.
The Care Coordination Measures Database (CCMD) is designed to assist evaluators and researchers by providing comprehensive profiles of existing measures of care coordination; organizing those measures along two dimensions (domain and perspective); and presenting a framework for understanding care coordination measurement, to which the measures are mapped. This framework incorporates elements from other proposed care coordination frameworks and is designed to support development of the field. Users of the CCMD can compare more than 90 validated care coordination measurement tools to identify and select those that are most appropriate for their research and evaluation needs.
Understanding primary care’s role in the medical neighborhood and in improving population health, as well as the health of individual patients, is an increasingly important aspect of primary care transformation. Relationships among patients, primary care clinics/clinicians, and community resources can be measured. However this has been an understudied aspect of primary care services.
In the context of the Clinical-Community Relationships Measures Database (CCRM Database), a clinical-community relationship exists when a primary care clinician makes a connection with a community resource to provide certain preventive services such as tobacco screening and counseling. The clinical practice and the community resource may engage by networking, coordinating, cooperating, or collaborating. The CCRM Database provides a framework for understanding the measurement of clinical-community relationships and provides information about existing measures, as well as links to resources to improve CCRM research and implementation.
Successful primary care redesign efforts such as the Patient-centered Medical Home require a high-functioning primary care team that delivers team-based care. Team-based primary care holds promise as a way to improve patient outcomes, care processes, and patient and provider experiences of care. However, a better understanding of how teams should function is needed, which in turn requires a strong theoretical conceptual framework and validated measures, specific to and appropriate for use in the primary care setting.
Having robust measures of team-based care appropriate to the primary care setting is critical to evaluating and improving team function and patient outcomes. The Team-based Care Measures Database is an inventory of instruments that provides a conceptual framework for team-based primary care and profiles of over 40 instruments for use in research and evaluation.
Integrated behavioral health care can systematically enhance the ability of primary care practices to address behavioral health issues that naturally emerge in the primary care setting, prevent fragmentation between behavioral health and medical care, and create effective relationships with mental health specialists.
As greater numbers of practices and health systems begin to design and implement integrated behavioral health services, there is a growing need for quality measures that are rigorous and appropriate to the specific characteristics of different approaches to integration.
The IBHC Measures Atlas supports the field of integrated behavioral health care measurement by presenting a framework for understanding measurement of integrated care; providing a list of existing measures relevant to integrated behavioral health care; and organizing the measures by the framework and by user goals to facilitate selection of measures.
The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) Item Set enables users of the CAHPS Clinician & Group Survey to ask patients about their experiences with the domains of primary care that define a medical home.